By Bentley Layton
This paintings by way of Bentley Layton is a newly revised, 3rd version of the normal reference grammar of Coptic within the classical Sahidic dialect. in comparison to the former variation, A Coptic Grammar comprises new additions and corrections, and keeps a whole index locorum of examples brought up within the grammar. Citations are the spine of any reference grammar, and this index provides readers rapid entry to a grammatical dialogue of approximately 3 thousand citations of classical Coptic. particularly noteworthy is the wide use of citations from the distinguished Coptic stylist Shenoute of Atripe.
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Extra resources for A Coptic Grammar with Chrestomathy and Glossary: Sahidic Dialect
The continual Cretan wars were in part the result of an economic and social crisis (see chapter 1, section 2, chapter 5, section 2), but in part also the result of a civic ideology which made war the most important civic duty – and the most proﬁtable occupation. Besides Crete, Sparta is another famous example of a militarist society. Here, the archaic military institutions were declining and were artiﬁcially brought to life with the reforms of Kings Agis IV and Kleomenes III (Cartledge and Spawforth 1989: 38–58).
The numerous military catalogs, in particular from Hyettos, Orchomenos, and Thespiai, which list the names of 20-year-old men who 22 BETWEEN CIVIC DUTIES AND OLIGARCHIC ASPIRATIONS were registered as light-armed soldiers and in the cavalry (ca. 245–167 BC), show the care given to this institution by the authorities. Unlike Athens, where the military training of the ephebes had become voluntary by the end of the fourth century, in Boiotia all the young men of citizen status seem to have been enrolled (Étienne and Knoepﬂer 1976: 202).
In the periphery of the Hellenistic world, on the northern border of Macedonia, in the Greek cities of the Black Sea, and in Kyrenaika (Libya), barbarian attacks were very frequent, albeit not well represented in our sources. On the eastern border, the wars of the Greek-Baktrian kings against the local tribes of Iran and Afghanistan have left their traces in the representation of military themes on their coins (cf. Lévêque 1991). However, the most important external factor inﬂuencing Hellenistic wars from the late third century onwards was the expansion of Rome and the increasing importance of imperialism for the Roman political, social, and economic elite.
A Coptic Grammar with Chrestomathy and Glossary: Sahidic Dialect by Bentley Layton
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