By M. Hassan Kakar
This political and diplomatic heritage of past due nineteenth-century Afghanistan and its significant ethnic teams lays naked how the floor used to be laid for the emergence of Afghanistan as a geographical region in addition to for the implementation of schemes of modernization.
It describes how Amir Sher ‘Ali Khan and, extra totally, Amir ‘Abd al-Rahman Khan for the 1st time consolidated the authority of the vital govt on the cost of the conventional self reliant neighborhood magnates, and hence controlled to arrange a centralized monarchical country and expand its direct rule thoughout Afghanistan.
They did so within the days of what has develop into often called the nice online game for the mastery of valuable Asian states. even supposing the good video game ended in the relief of Afghanistan in dimension, it additionally resulted in the transparent demarcation of its limitations according to foreign agreements.
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Additional resources for A Political And Diplomatic History of Afghanistan, 1863-1901 (Brill's Inner Asian Library)
22 chapter one time the government opened a school along with a military academy. The schools were, of course, in addition to the madrasas (traditional seminaries) which had existed in Afghanistan since the time of Emperor Sultan Mahmud of Ghazna, in the eleventh century. Even after it had been reformed the government was still unable to rule directly over the entire country. It controlled only cities, towns and their dependencies as well as those areas where contingents of troops were stationed.
27 The military expenditure strained the economy, since out of the yearly income of over thirteen million Kabuli rupees over ﬁve-and-a-half million (or nearly forty-three percent) were spent on the army28 The military expenses made it necessary for the amir to revamp the system of taxation. Information on the overall system of taxation is not available. However, reports on certain districts indicate that the revenue on land was assessed either on the basis of se-kot [one-third] or jam’ bast [assessment on a tribal community].
23 The amir “. . , 135. Figures on the army of Amir Sher 'Ali Khan are many and at variance with each other. Those noted by J. Lambert are probably accurate, because he had compiled them from the oﬃcial pay rolls in Kabul when the British had occupied it in 1879. These I have cited in the text. Lambert, J. “Statement of the Revenue and Expenditure of Afghanistan, 1877–78,” Pros. Sept. 1886, Nos. 161–166, 1886, Foreign Department, Secret-F, The National Archives of India, New Delhi (Henceforth, NAI).
A Political And Diplomatic History of Afghanistan, 1863-1901 (Brill's Inner Asian Library) by M. Hassan Kakar
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