By M. Haq

ISBN-10: 9535101285

ISBN-13: 9789535101284

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The photon energy is determined with the 2d lattice spacing of a monochromatizing crystal and the incident angle using Bragg’s law. Several masks and slits were inserted to minimize stray lights. 2 Tandem-type high-vacuum and atmospheric-pressure sample chambers It is challenging to obtain reliable spectra from highly reactive compounds. In the soft X-ray region, XAFS spectra are usually measured in vacuum because of the low transmittance of X-rays in air (see Fig. 3). A vacuum environment is also necessary to measure reliable spectra from highly hygroscopic samples.

Skeletal structure and locus of axis of motion of knee joint. (a) Skeletal structure of knee joint; (b) Locus of axis of motion. 1 Principle of the stretch reflex When muscle is stretched, it reflexively contracts in response. This kind of muscle response is called the stretch reflex. The stretch reflex is the target of the pendulum test. Fig. 3 shows the conceptual pathway of the stretch reflex. , the α-motoneuron. The spinal cord receives the signal and sends a command (efferent signal) to effector (muscle) to restore this stretched state to the original state.

In the following, we call such an oscillation forced oscillation. The forced oscillation is classified into two types (William, 1998). One is a forced oscillation that is caused by stretch velocity component included in the afferent signal from the muscle spindle to the α-motoneuron. The value of the contractile force induced by such a component becomes maximum at the time when stretch velocity of the quadriceps femoris muscle reaches about maximum value. We call the reflex caused by such a component phasic reflex.

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Advanced Topics in Measurements by M. Haq

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