By Rod Phillips
Even if as wine, beer, or spirits, alcohol has had a continuing and infrequently debatable position in social existence. In his cutting edge publication at the attitudes towards and intake of alcohol, Rod Phillips surveys a 9,000-year cultural and fiscal heritage, uncovering the tensions among alcoholic beverages as fit staples of day-by-day diets and as gadgets of social, political, and non secular nervousness. within the city facilities of Europe and the US, the place it used to be visible as more fit than untreated water, alcohol won a foothold because the drink of selection, however it has been extra regulated through governmental and spiritual professionals greater than the other commodity. As a possible resource of social disruption, alcohol created risky obstacles of applicable and unacceptable intake and broke via limitations of sophistication, race, and gender.
Phillips follows the ever-changing cultural meanings of those effective potables and makes the mind-blowing argument that a few societies have entered "post-alcohol" stages. His is the 1st e-book to envision and clarify the meanings and results of alcohol in such intensity, from worldwide and long term perspectives.
Read Online or Download Alcohol: A History PDF
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No matter if as wine, beer, or spirits, alcohol has had a continuing and infrequently debatable function in social lifestyles. In his cutting edge e-book at the attitudes towards and intake of alcohol, Rod Phillips surveys a 9,000-year cultural and fiscal background, uncovering the tensions among alcoholic beverages as fit staples of day-by-day diets and as gadgets of social, political, and non secular nervousness.
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Extra resources for Alcohol: A History
The prostitute opened her mouth. She said to Enkidu, ‘eat the food Enkidu, it is the luster of life. ’ Enkidu ate the food until he was sated; of the beer he drank seven cups. His soul became free and cheerful, his heart rejoiced, his face glowed. He rubbed . . his hairy body. He anointed himself with oil. 27 Evidence of the banquet was found in a five-by-six-meter burial room deep in a human-built earthen mound that looks, from the outside, like a natural hillock. It is located in Gordion, now in central Turkey but formerly the capital of the Phrygian empire over which Midas ruled.
Wine, on the other hand, left grape seeds, tartaric acid, and tree resin inside pottery jars. While it is possible that the jars contained unfermented grape juice rather than wine, in the warm conditions of the region, the sugar-rich juice would almost certainly have attracted yeasts and quickly started fermenting. The traces of resin also support the conclusion that the jars held wine, as tree resin was widely used in wine as a preservative—a practice that continues today (but for flavoring, not conservation purposes) in resinated wines of the eastern Mediterranean, such as Greek retsina.
The earliest western Asian evidence of alcohol dates from 5400 to 5000 BC (about 7,000 years ago) in Hajji Firuz, a community in the Zagros Mountains, which run along the frontier between modern Iraq and Iran. Telltale residues in the pottery vessels found there indicate both beer and wine. Beer can be deduced by the presence of oxalate ion, a common residue from brewing, on the inside of a jar and the presence of some carbonized barley at the same location. Wine, on the other hand, left grape seeds, tartaric acid, and tree resin inside pottery jars.
Alcohol: A History by Rod Phillips
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