By Dick A. J. Starmans, Klass W. Van der Hoek

ISBN-10: 9086860281

ISBN-13: 9789086860289

ISBN-10: 9086865976

ISBN-13: 9789086865970

Within the Netherlands, an severe development in animal husbandry has taken position up to now many years. This progress precipitated significant shifts within the nationwide nitrogen and ammonia stability, with feedstuff being imported from overseas and animal waste getting used in extra in Dutch agricultural components. becoming environmental accountability, which used to be brought on via clinical observations on field-scale early-on, led to placing animal waste and ammonia at the political time table. Governmental rules have been installed impact and examine courses have been set-up to improve ideas to degree and decrease ammonia emissions in response to a systematic method. in the meantime, a list used to be made up of the dimensions of the animal waste challenge. also, the affects at the atmosphere have been studied, in addition to technical strategies to reduce the animal waste construction have been built. This ebook goals to supply a whole assessment of all ammonia emission comparable points of animal husbandry within the Netherlands. along with the history info as defined above, it incorporates a technical and functional stock of emission resources from livestock, pig, and chook housings, via a list of presidency licensed housing structures and manure software suggestions which have been measured in accordance with typical protocols to quantify the on-farm lessen of ammonia emissions. For either conventional and coffee emission structures a listing of emission components is incorporated. by way of providing universal practices within the Netherlands, this e-book additionally informs different european nations approximately our ongoing insights concerning Dutch laws, dimension protocols, abatement suggestions and interpretation of measured farm-scale facts to nationwide emission values. during this manner, it is going to give a contribution to directing the advance of farm animals creation through the european member states in the direction of a fit and extra sustainable destiny

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Extra resources for Ammonia the case of The Netherlands

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2%. 8% (Aarnink and Elzing, 1998). 2. Reactive emissions Certain emissions occur as a result of chemical reactions. In general, these reactions require certain conditions to be met. e. biological reactions – additional conditions such as pH, inhibitor concentration, removal of reaction products from active sites, and the addition of catalysts may influence the overall reaction speed. With respect to ammonia emissions from cattle and pig houses, the urease activity plays an important role in the ammonia emission rate.

1996)), or by placing inclined walls in the pit. As an example, the latter can – in combination with regular draining of the pit – be used to decrease the ammonia volatilisation by a factor of 4. Another important parameter is temperature. The temperature dependency of K is found in the definition of the diffusion coefficient D| and the acid equilibrium constant Ka from Equation 2. An increase in temperature causes a rise in D| and a shift of equilibrium 2 to the right (increase in F). 2%. 8% (Aarnink and Elzing, 1998).

The Working group Emission Monitoring (WEM) coordinates, controls planning and advises on proposed monitoring programs for a great number of emissions from all agricultural and non agricultural sources. For ammonia emissions the WEM delegates their responsibility to the working group agriculture and land use. This working group holds experts from MNP, Wageningen UR institutes LEI and Alterra, the Institute for inland water management and waste water treatment (RIZA) and Statistics Netherlands (CBS).

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Ammonia the case of The Netherlands by Dick A. J. Starmans, Klass W. Van der Hoek

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