By Nic Fields
The advance of the city-state within the Classical interval of Greek historical past ensured a shift within the nature of fortifications within the sector. now not have been fortresses designed to guard a ruler and his entourage, particularly the complete of the citizen physique needed to be shielded from any outdoors threats. The enceintes of those Greek city-states didn't have to be very excessive or powerful as city-state clash used to be nonetheless determined by means of spear and guard, even though a few notion was once nonetheless given to the technological know-how of fortification. This publication information the development and ongoing improvement of the defences that safe essentially the most illustrious websites in Greece in the course of the most renowned interval of her historical past.
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Extra info for Ancient Greek Fortifications 500-300 BC
Though German immigrants introduced riﬂes to Pennsylvania in the 1740s and probably earlier, it would not be until the 1760s that riﬂes were a common sight on the hunting trail. A riﬂe’s accuracy was offset by its greater expense, loading time, and inability to mount a bayonet. None of the French or British regiments initially sent to North America had any riﬂe companies. During Abercromby’s 1758 campaign, however, riﬂes were 40 The Epic Battles for Ticonderoga, 1758 available, ten to a regular regiment’s best sharpshooters.
To the French and most other European rivals, Britain’s government seemed surprisingly weak to manage such a wealthy and expanding empire. George II was a constitutional monarch whose powers were limited by the 1689 Bill of Rights and 1701 Act of Settlement. A cabinet of ministers debated and implemented policies, with the duty for imperial affairs split between the Board of Trade and secretary of state for the Southern Department. The king ratiﬁed cabinet decisions. The cabinet then had to receive approval from parliament, with 558 House of Commons members and roughly 250 members of the House of Lords.
But the English and French commissioners were deadlocked for years as each side asserted claims unacceptable to the other. The French based their claims on prior discovery and a watershed theory of ownership whereby the Appalachian Mountains would split the two empires. The British used the Utrecht Treaty’s Acadian and Iroquois tenets to demand all lands below the St. Lawrence, and Lakes Ontario and Erie west as far as the Wabash River. Thus did the commission exacerbate rather than mediate tensions.
Ancient Greek Fortifications 500-300 BC by Nic Fields
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